Students prize citations. For this reason, they can be a very effective motivator.

Using Citations

You may award final grades of A, B, C, D, or E (failure); you may also attach pluses and minuses to a B, C or D and minuses to an A. (You will be asked to offer some explanation for awarding an E.)

Sometimes you may feel that a grade alone (even with pluses and minuses) so inadequately represents the quality of a student’s work that you wish to write a citation in addition to a grade. Some instructors reserve citations only for students who earned an A; this may be a way of adding luster to the highest possible grade. Some instructors also award citations along with other passing grades in order to indicate an appreciation of special efforts and achievements obscured by the grade.

Citations are recorded on a student’s permanent record.